Home Contact Us
Search :

Naxalite Violence - Articles

Print Bookmark Email Facebook Subscribe
#2459, 3 January 2008
School Dropouts Deepen Naxal Problem in Bihar
Kamla Singh
PGT Teacher, Koilwar High School, ARA, Bihar
e-mail: kamlasingh30@gmail.com

The Prime Minister has declared that Naxalism has become the biggest national threat. There are many states under the influence of the red brigade, including India's eastern state of Bihar. One of the country's poorest states, Bihar is fraught with political violence due to the Maoist insurgency and has witnessed many massacres. Bihar is a traditional hotbed of Naxal violence and the Maoists are reportedly active in 30 of its 38 districts. One of the factors sustaining Naxal violence in Bihar is the massive dropouts from schools, who are easy targets as Naxal recruits. Bihar, along with Meghalaya, has the highest school drop-out rate in the country, with 77 per cent of students leaving school before completing their tenth class.

In Bihar, the majority of dropouts belong to the Dalit community. These children roam around aimlessly, with no social respect or dignity. Quite often they face the abusive anger of the landlords but their image changes once they become Naxalites. Upper caste elders now give them due regard and recognize them as important figures in the village. This sudden gain in social recognition encourages many teenagers to join the Naxalites. This short cut to social recognition creates a vicious circle, which ends in goonda raj. Being uneducated, they become a brute force. Their whole exercise is not related to bringing about social justice and establishing an egalitarian social order, but making their own life joyful and dignified. Charu Mazumdar's ideological orientation is non-existent in the Naxal outfits of Bihar. The existing Naxal outfits are not ideological social catalysts, but goons and terrorists.

For instance, the Naxalites force many Dalit families to hand over their kids to the party, or else face dire consequences. Hapless Dalits are sandwiched between police brutalities and Naxal violence. The police consider them as Naxals agents, whereas the Naxals torture them in their own interests. Many primary schools have been shut down because of the Naxal violence in Bihar. Schools have been either turned into a hub for Naxalite activity or into a police outpost. In either case, the schools remain closed.

Many developmental projects have also been targeted by Naxal outfits in the state. A recent report by the Indian Railway Construction Company (IRCON) sheds light on many road projects in Bihar being abandoned due to the threat of Naxals. The report submitted to the Rural Development Ministry reviews projects under the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). Under the PMGSY, Bihar has a target to connect 9,600 villages. Out of some 57 such road projects in the four districts of Arval, Gaya, Aurangabad and Jehanabad, nearly 23 have been abandoned due to the Naxal menace.

Since the merger of the two main groups of Naxalites, the Maoist Communist Centre of India (MCCI) and the Communist Party of India, Marxist-Leninist (People's War) to form the united Communist Party of India, Maoist or CPI (Maoist) in September 2004, Naxal violence has became more frequent in Bihar. Both groups were the most powerful ones, accounting for about 88 percent of the countrywide Naxalite violence and 90 percent of the resultant deaths. The succeeding years, however, have witnessed not just a consolidation of the extremists in their strongholds, but a further expansion into newer areas. Thus, apart from traditional strongholds in Patna, Gaya, Aurangabad, Arwal Bhabhua, Rohtas and Jehanabad in southwestern Bihar, there has been a spurt in extremism in North Bihar, bordering Nepal, including the West Champaran, East Champaran, Sheohar, Sitamarhi, Muzaffarpur, Darbhanga and Madhubani districts. The Naxalites have also extended their areas of influence to Shaharsha, Begusarai and Vaisali and areas along the Uttar Pradesh border.

The unity of many Naxal outfits has prompted them to create exclusive zones of influence where they collect ransom '' from officials, contractors and others." The Ministry of Home Affairs' Report indicates that they also force farmers to cultivate opium in their exclusive zones, and are involved in drug trafficking in and out of the country. Intelligence reports indicate that the Naxalite groups in India are the latest entrants to narco-terrorism.

Naxalism in Bihar has also promoted a gun culture. Spread across Nalanda, Nawada, Gaya and Munger districts, within a 110 km radius of Patna, a variety of arms and ammunition are now manufactured.

The state's development is thus caught in a vicious cycle: while the MNCs are not coming to Bihar because of Naxal violence and extortion, the continuing backwardness of the state generates more social inequality on which the Naxal outfits thrive.

Print Bookmark Email Facebook Subscribe
IPCS Columnists
Af-Pak Diary
D Suba Chandran
Pakistan: Crouching Democrats, Hidden Khakis
Mullah Fazlullah: Challenges to the ?Eliminate or Extradite? Approach
Taliban after Afghan Elections: Spring Offensive or the Last Stand?
Dateline Islamabad
Salma Malik
Of Inquilab and the Inquilabis
Pakistan: Of Messiahs and Marches
Zarb-e-Azb: The Decisive Strike

Dateline Kabul
Mariam Safi
Can Afghanistan Become a "Perfect Place?"
Afghanistan: Political Crises After the Presidential Run-off
Taliban?s Spring Offensive: Are the ANSF Prepared?
Dhaka Discourse
Prof Delwar Hossain
Abe?s Successful Visit to Dhaka: Two Political Challenges
Girl Summit Diplomacy and Bangladesh-UK Relations
India-Bangladesh: After Sushma Swaraj's Visit

Eagle Eye
Prof Chintamani Mahapatra
Changing Global Balance of Power: Obama?s Response
Obama Administration: Re-engaging India
US in South Asia: Declining Influence
East Asia Compass
Dr Sandip Mishra
India in East Asia: Modi?s Three Summit Meets
Modi's Visit to Japan: Gauging Inter-State Relations in Asia
North Korea: Seeking New Friends?

Himalayan Frontier
Pramod Jaiswal
China in Nepal: Increasing Connectivity Via Railways
India-Nepal Hydroelectricity Deal: Making it Count
Federalism and Nepal: Internal Differences
Maritime Matters
Vijay Sakhuja
Maritime Terrorism: Karachi as a Staging Point
Maritime Silk Road: Can India Leverage It?
BRICS: The Oceanic Connections

Middle Kingdom
DS Rajan
China in the Indian Ocean: Competing Priorities
China-Japan Friction: How can India Respond?
Nuke Street
Amb Sheelkant Sharma
India-Australia Nuclear Agreement: Bespeaking of a New Age
Remembering Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Musings on the Bomb
The Second Nuclear Age in the Asia Pacific

Red Affairs
Bibhu Prasad
Six Thousand Plus Killed: The Naxal Ideology of Violence
Anti-Naxal Operations: Seeking Refuge in Symbolism
A 'New' Counter-Naxal Action Plan
South Asian Dialectic
PR Chari
Obama?s New Strategy towards the Islamic State: Implications for India
Modi?s Tryst with Abe
Thinking the Unthinkable: Promoting Nuclear Disarmament

Spotlight West Asia
Amb Ranjit Gupta
War against the Islamic State: Political and Military Responses from the Region
The Islamic State: No Country for the Old World Order
India and the Conflict in Gaza
Strategic Space
Manpreet Sethi
Uranium and Nuclear Power: Three Indian Stories
A Strategic Review for India
Indian Ratification of the Additional Protocol: Mischievous Reports Miss its Significance

The Big Picture
Prof Varun Sahni
Pakistan?s Tactical Nuclear Weapons: The Inevitability of Instability
The Indo Pacific
Prof Shankari Sundararaman
Myanmar's Political Transition: Challenges of the 2015 Election
South China Sea: Intransigence Over Troubled Waters
Indonesia: 2014 Presidential Election Explained

The Strategist
Vice Admiral Vijay Shankar
The Islamic State Caliphate: A Mirage of Resurrection
A Covenant Sans Sword
Strife on the Global Commons
Dateline Colombo

Asanga Abeyagoonasekera.
Stronger Democratic Values for a Better Tomorrow
Sri Lanka and China: Towards Innovation Driven Economies
India-Sri Lanka: Strengthening Regional Cooperation
Sushant Sareen
Pakistan: Why is Army against Nawaz Sharif?
Pakistan: Degraded Democracy
Domestic Politicking in Pakistan: It's Not Cricket, Stupid!
Voice from America
Amit Gupta
Modi?s US Visit: So Much Promise, Such Little Outcome
India and Australia: Beyond Curry, Cricket, and Commonwealth
And Then There is the Middle East: The Lack of an End-Game

OTHER REGULAR contributors
Gurmeet Kanwal
Harun ur Rashid
N Manoharan
Wasbir Hussain
Rana Banerji
N Manoharan

Ruhee Neog
Teshu Singh
Aparupa Bhattacherjee
Roomana Hukil
Aparupa Bhattacherjee


Browse by Publications

Issue Briefs 
Special Reports 
Research Papers 
Seminar Reports 
Conference Reports 

Browse by Region/Countries

East Asia 
South Asia 
Southeast Asia 
US & South Asia 

Browse by Issues

India & the world  
Naxalite Violence 
Suicide Terrorism 
Peace & Conflict Database 
Article by same Author
Threat to Whistle Blowers in Bihar

Anti-Naxal Forces in Bihar

Why Muslims are not part of Naxal Outfits in Bihar

Scientific Temper and Naxal Violence in Bihar

Why Do Naxals Hate NGOs? A Case Study of Bihar

Y! MyWeb
Print Bookmark Email Facebook Subscribe
Year 2014
 January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October
 2013  2012  2011  2010  2009  2008  2007  2006
 2005  2004  2003  2002  2001  2000  1999  1998

The Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS) is the premier South Asian think tank which conducts independent research on and provides an in depth analysis of conventional and non-conventional issues related to national and South Asian security including nuclear issues, disarmament, non-proliferation, weapons of mass destruction, the war on terrorism, counter terrorism , strategies security sector reforms, and armed conflict and peace processes in the region.

For those in South Asia and elsewhere, the IPCS website provides a comprehensive analysis of the happenings within India with a special focus on Jammu and Kashmir and Naxalite Violence. Our research promotes greater understanding of India's foreign policy especially India-China relations, India's relations with SAARC countries and South East Asia.

Through close interaction with leading strategic thinkers, former members of the Indian Administrative Service, the Foreign Service and the three wings of the Armed Forces - the Indian Army, Indian Navy, and Indian Air Force, - the academic community as well as the media, the IPCS has contributed considerably to the strategic discourse in India.

Subscribe to Newswire | Site Map | IPCS Email
B 7/3 Lower Ground Floor, Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi 110029, INDIA.
Tel: 91-11-4100 1900, 4165 2556, 4165 2557, 4165 2558, 4165 2559 Fax: (91-11) 41652560
© Copyright 2014, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies.
        Web Design by http://www.indiainternets.com